This automation industry quiz question comes from the ISA Certified Automation Professional (CAP) certification program. ISA CAP certification provides a non-biased, third-party, objective assessment and confirmation of an automation professional’s skills. The CAP exam is focused on direction, definition, design, development/application, deployment, documentation, and support of systems, software, and equipment used in control systems, manufacturing information systems, systems integration, and operational consulting. Click this link for more information about the CAP program.
In the ISA84 standard, the concept of multiple independent protection layers refers to:
a) multiple layers in a control system architecture, which provide redundant data pathways from sensors and plant-floor level devices to servers, historians, and business networks, in order to ensure reliable data capture.
b) independent layers of protection for which each layer helps to reduce the overall level of risk of the process. The inner layers help to prevent a hazardous event (explosion, fire, etc.) from ever occurring, and the outer layers are designed to help lessen the consequences of an event once it has occurred.
c) independent software modules where each successive layer monitors each layer below to ensure the integrity of the sensor signals processed and the transfer of data to the next-higher software module.
d) independent layers of project management decision-making, which help ensure project execution is performed to meet schedule and budget constraints.
e) none of the above