Abstract: This paper analyzes the fragility issue of fractional-order proportional-integral-derivative controllers applied to integer ﬁrst-order plus-dead-time processes. In particular, the effects of the variations of the controller parameters on the achieved control system robustness and performance are investigated. Results show that this kind of controller is more fragile with respect to the standard proportional-integral-derivative controllers and therefore signiﬁcant attention should be paid by the user in their tuning. A properly designed control system must provide an effective trade-off between performance and robustness. One of the main reasons to investigate the fragility of fractional-orde PID controllers is to enable an engineer or technician to use alternative strategies for tuning the controller.
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